Public-Private Partnerships: A Djaghe White Paper



A Djaghe white paper on Public-Private Partnerships examines public-private partnerships (PPPs) generally, as well as their treatment under international trade agreements. It compiles eight posts from Perspectives on Trade that address this topic.


The first post, “PPPs #1: Public-Private Partnerships under the GPA,” sets the stage for the consideration of PPPs by providing a broad description of them and outlining the extent to which they are covered under the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA). PPPs covered under the GPA and other trade agreements are elaborated upon in three posts: “PPPs #2: EU Works Concessions under Trade Agreements” and “PPPs #3: Japan’s Private Finance Initiative“ set out the PPP commitments of the European Union and Japan, respectively; and “Montenegro Joins GPA” describes how Montenegro follows the EU in its coverage of works concessions.

The next post, PPPs #4: TPP Parties”, reviews the coverage of PPPs under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) by the United States and most other parties. The post, “PPPs #6: Malaysia”, examines Malaysia’s PPP program, which it excludes from the TPP.

The post, “BOT Contracts and Works Concessions in the TTIP,” considers the possible exchange of PPP coverage by the EU and the U.S. under the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).

Finally, the post, “PPPs #5: Treasury Papers on TPP Use in U.S.”, elaborates on the measures of the U.S. federal government to support the expanded use of PPPs in the United States.

Jean Heilman Grier

November 8, 2016

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    Book: The International Procurement System Government procurement required 40 years and substantial efforts to become part of the international trade regime, even though it comprises a significant part of the global economy. The international system requires governments to balance protectionist forces favoring local suppliers against the pressures of liberalization, which expand procurement markets and lower prices.